Monday, May 25, 2020

The Sparrow - 1724 Words

The Sparrow, by Mary Doria Russell, is a story with so many odd and ironic twists that it can blind you from the philosophical ideas that Mary is really trying to throw out there. With a group of people traveling on an asteroid on the quest to learn about alien life, it seems more like an action packed science-fiction novel than a book with religious and moral issues. But Mary s incredible skills as a storyteller forces readers to truly tests their knowledge and beliefs. The main character, Emilio Sandoz, looks at the Stella Maris mission not only as a way to be the first to make contact with alien life forms, but also as a quest to find God, since in his eyes, this amazing journey must be God showing him his purpose. Sofia Mendes, who†¦show more content†¦The experiences that she has such as these puts so much frustration in her system that is steers her away from truly having full faith in God. Emilio Sandoz is Jesuit priest, desperately trying to find his way towards God. Being a Jesuit, he is the member of the Roman Catholic religious order or the Society of Jesus. He is part of the largest single religious order, devoted to the pope and ruled by its general who lives in Rome. Jesuit training can last for more than 15 years. They spend 2 years in spiritual training, after which he takes the simple vows of the regulars – chastity, poverty and obedience. Then as a scholastic, he spends 13 years and sometimes longer in study and teaching, completed by an additional year of spiritual training. Emilio felt that becoming a Jesuit would create some good in his life. Before his training, his beliefs about God weren t very concrete, but thought that after the many years of dedication, he would eventually believe. As a middle-aged man, however, it turned out that he still had doubts. â€Å"If he could not put his faith directly in God, who remained unknowable, he could place it in the structure of the Society and in his superiors – in D.W. Yarbrough and in Father General da Silva† (Russell 111). He lacked any kind of revelation within his life at the time that took his mind into a greater spiritual place. While reading the first half of the book, it is confusingShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Jack Sparrow s Pirates Of The Caribbean 1058 Words   |  5 Pagesin sheep’s clothing.† In this paper I will be analyzing Jack Sparrow in Pirates of the Caribbean and the many ways he cloaks himself to gain the likes of his peers while being the definition of a tri ckster on the inside. I will be discussing him via monomyth, as a trickster, and a cathartic and motivational hero. Jack Sparrow is a main character in the Pirates of the Caribbean series spanning four movies. Throughout the series, Sparrow goes on numerous journeys and faces a multitude of trials andRead MoreThe Parasites Infecting The Common House Sparrow2922 Words   |  12 Pagesinfluence of the Parasites infecting the common house sparrow (Passer domesticus) association in human in Khartoum State By Fatima El Ffatih El Aameen Ashiakh Baiker A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Zoology in Partial Fulfillment for the Requirement of the Degree of B.Sc. (Honours) in Zoology University of Khartoum Faculty of Science Department of Zoology Fatima El fatih El ameen Ashiakh Baiker 5th year Abstract House sparrow (Passer domesticus) is closely associated with humanRead MoreA Little Sparrow1867 Words   |  8 Pagesit was later republished by Einaudi, one of the most important publishing companies in Italy, becoming a classic in Italian children literature. The story narrates the adventures of a little sparrow. It was inspired by Lodi’s pupils, who, as they were looking outside the window of their classroom, saw a sparrow brooding some eggs. They began to write a fictional account of it, accompanied by their own drawings of the different moments of the story. Lodi recalled in his diary that pupils were so excitedRead MoreMusical Analysis on Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Mans Chest1986 Words   |  8 Pagesfor Jack Sparrow’s compass. William Turner is sent off to find Jack Sparrow. He is reluctant to leave his future bride behind in prison, but it is his only chance to free her. Jack Sparrow is a cursed pirate. He has made a deal with Davy Jones, the captain of the Flying Dutchmen. If Davy Jones would raise the Black Pearl from the bottom of the ocean, Jack Sparrow had thirteen years to captain it. After thirteen years, Jack Sparrow must give Davy Jones his soul. It has been thirteen years, and DavyRead MoreA Pirate Played By Johnny Depp1208 Words   |  5 Pagesto the tricksters we have read about, Jack Sparrow a pirate played by Johnny Depp from a popular Walt Disney movie called Pirates and the Caribbean. Despite the differences between the trickster figures being from very different settings, these characters all very similar to each other. You may ask, how can you possibly relate or define Jack Sparrow as a trickster character? Well, Jack Sparrow embodies everything a trickster character should. Sparrow is very witty and often finds himself in dangerousRead MoreAnalysis Of Joe Sparrow s Death1167 Words   |  5 PagesJoe Sparrow came to us because he saw a concerning sight after ending his shift at City Mill. He says that before he left work he had â€Å"a few†, leaving his mind slightly intoxicated. Although he doesn’t remember what time he left work, but he did know that he left at a late time. As he was driving through Waiale, past 6th Avenue, he saw a scuffle at the side of the road. Because of his intoxication and the darkness he couldn’t identify the hair color or race of the victims or suspects. Sparrow, byRead MoreAnalysis Of William Shakespeare s Henry Iv 991 Words   |  4 PagesHal’s partner in crime. He is always looking for a good time while he eats, drinks, and pisses away all he can get his hands on. A more modern parallel would be the fiction character Captain Jack Sparrow from Pirates of the Caribbean. Both abuse any power or authority thrust upon them. While Jack Sparrow is obviously more fit and better at combat than Falstaff, both seem to enjoy the world of physical pleasures, including drinking the day away in a daze, stealing anything they deem as of high valueRead MoreImportance of the Gardens in The Sparrow Essay914 Words   |  4 PagesThe actual turning point in The Sparrow was when the Utra-Light crashed. However, it was of little interest. The importance of the novel lied within the gardens that were built. The garden the Jesuit mission planted served as the catalyst to the future demise of the group, and especially Emilio. Emilio not only had his body destroyed, but also his soul. The gardens caused a slaughter, an imprisonment, an eventual destruction of the survivors hands, another death, a rape, and a long period ofRead MoreThe Success of the Pirates of the Caribbean in Appealing to a Wide Audience646 Words   |  3 Pagesaction fit in together to make a fantastic family film witch draws you to watch it again and again. The hero’s and villains play an interesting part but the best part is played by Johnny Depp as the anti-hero captain Jack Sparrow. His cunning personality makes you grin as even in the face of death he’s laughing and making jokes. For example towards the end of the film when he is about to be hung he is laughing at the crimes he is about to be hung for. Read MoreYour Childs Emotional and Behavioral Development, by T. Berry Brazelton and Joshua D. Sparrow1329 Words   |  6 PagesIn Touchpoints: Your Child’s Emotional and Behavioral Development, by T. Berry Brazelton and Joshua D. Sparrow they created a research study of four children over four years, from three to six. This is where the book begins an introduction of the four â€Å"Brazelton babies† which are, Billy, Minnie, Marcy, and Tim. It lists numerous everyday situations that parents are bound to deal with, and instead of exploding handling it the Brazelton way. Touchpoints as the book explains in the introduction is a

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Importance Of Congress In Crafting American Foreign...

The President’s recent actions to send troops to Poland and Lithuania to defend our NATO allies has led to questions regarding the constitutionality of such action and the role congress plays in crafting American foreign policy. It is very important to understand these questions and the debates that surround them are not new to our nation. In fact, two of our nations most important founders, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, debated the balance of congressional and presidential power in foreign affairs all the way back in 1793. Similarly, the need to defend our NATO allies is nothing new. As Russia looks to expand its â€Å"sphere of influence† and return to its Cold War Self; we must ensure that our military and our NATO allies have the†¦show more content†¦Since then, Congress has remained a strong supporter in the Organization. As you will recall, both the U.S House of Representatives and Senate have recently voted, with near unanimous approval, amendmen ts stating Congress’s support to the NATO alliance. President Trump’s actions where made in the spirit of Congress’s longstanding commitment. James Madison himself points out that,† The natural province of the executive magistrate is to execute laws†¦ (Pyle, Pious 58).† President Trump actions to send troops to Eastern Europe is an example of the President executing the law of the land, in this case the NATO treaty. The execution of the law was done as a defense mechanism against Russian aggression. President Trump’s actions where in the spirit of collective defense defined in NATO’s charter of which has been approved by Congress continuously. Hypothetically, if the President were to make an offensive move against Russia he would need the approval of Congress, because he would no longer be following the protocol for NATO’s collective defense. This would remain the case until a member of NATO invokes the mutual self-defense c lause of the NATO treaty (Article Five). Alexander Hamilton wrote during the Neutrality Debate of 1793, â€Å"If the Legislature have a right to make war on the one hand—it is on the other the duty of the Executive to preserve Peace till war is declared†¦ (Pyle,Show MoreRelatedEssay on Hamdi et al. v. Rumsfeld4706 Words   |  19 Pagesdefense of the abuses at Guantanamo Bay. In this case, four British citizens are suing Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld as well as a host of Army and Air Force Generals and policy apparatchiks for allegedly authorizing the use of torture in Afghanistan and Guantanamo Bay. The four were captured in Afghanistan, either by Americans or America’s ally, the Northern Alliance, and transported to Guantanamo Bay in Cuba where they were held for over two years. Their status there was not as enemy combatantRead More How the United States Must Handle China and Its Military in the 21st Century4404 Words   |  18 PagesThere is a delicate balancing act a country must be aware of when it is a military superpower. A superpower must exercise extreme care to protect their economic superiority, advance their foreign policies, and project their military might all while working to advance the global system. Enticing China to become a responsible pillar of the global system will be one of the greatest challenges of coming decades for the United States and the Western world-particularly since it appears for the moment ChinaRead MoreA Research Study On The United States Method Of Survey Research2772 Words   |  12 Pagestheir wartime work had been a long term investment for science: if scientists did not come out into the world of practical affairs now and then to show what they could do they could not expect the public to support their basic research† (184).The importance of historicizing survey research method during this time period is because it is here that â€Å"the branch had helped in showing government that the social science indeed had somethin g practical and useful to offer† (171). The assistance from the surveyRead MoreColonial Rule Of Independence And Independence10047 Words   |  41 Pagesfrom the colonial power’s control, why would a state decide to retain a colonial institution that is an important to the POGG of an independent state? I posit that states desire a final appellate court that is likely to uphold and legitimize the policies of the nation’s governing elite. The length and type of colonial rule influence the national governing elite’s decision about the final appellate court at independence. Some states that retain the right of appeal to an extraterritorial court at independenceRead MoreHuman Resource Management, Industrial Relations and Achieving Management Objectives11312 Words   |  46 Pagesof employment as well as in relation to working time and job functions have occurred as a result of such factors as heightened competition, rapid changes in products and processes an d the increasing importance of skills, quality and productivity. These factors have also had an impact on HRM policies and practices. In managing change, the key elements include employee involvement in effecting change, greater customer orientation, and ensuring that the skills of employees are appropriate to the productionRead MoreEthics and Politics6983 Words   |  28 Pageschallenging. In the government as a whole, agencies compete for significance in the national/international picture, because significance means public approval and that means resources. (The two dominant political parties also attempt to present the American public with different views of what is significant.) †¢ Because of scarce resources and enduring differences, conflict is central to organizational dynamics and power is the most important resource. Conflict is more likely in under-bounded systemsRead MoreEthics and Politics6991 Words   |  28 Pageschallenging. In the government as a whole, agencies compete for significance in the national/international picture, because significance means public approval and that means resources. (The two dominant political parties also attempt to present the American public with different views of what is significant.) †¢ Because of scarce resources and enduring differences, conflict is central to organizational dynamics and power is the most important resource. Conflict is more likely in under-bounded systemsRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words   |  269 PagesGoodshoot/PunchStock Media Project Manager: Balaji Sundararaman Compositor: Aptara ®, Inc. Typeface: 10/12 Times Roman Printer: Quad/Graphics All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Luthans, Fred. International management : culture, strategy, and behavior / Fred Luthans, Jonathan P. Doh.—8th ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: International management / Richard M. Hodgetts, Fred Luthans, Jonathan Doh. 6thRead MoreEssay on Framing the User: Social Constructions of Marijuana Users9798 Words   |  40 Pageslegitimacy and outcomes of user movements. In truth in fact, this distinction is somewhat artificial since many movements have similar elements to deal with. For example, the Civil Rights movement, in part, hinged on the public perception of African Americans. If the public perceived them as lazy, criminal, or whatever, then this would likely influence the public perception of the Civil Rights movement as a whole. This brings up a fairly standard distinction between beneficiary and constituency (activist)Read MoreLecture Notes on Financial Planning7006 Words   |  29 PagesHedge o Hedger †¢ Interest rate o Risk free interest rate o Term structure of interest rates o interest o effective interest rate o nominal interest rate o interest rate basis o Fisher equation †¢ Crowding Out o annual percentage rate †¢ Investment o Foreign direct investment o Over-investing †¢ Leverage †¢ Locked-in value †¢ Long †¢ Liquidity †¢ Margin account †¢ Margin call †¢ Mark to future †¢ Mark to market †¢ Market Impact †¢ Medium of exchange †¢ Money †¢ coin o banknote o counterfeit †¢ Portfolio o Modern portfolio

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Synthesis Paper on Gay Marriage - 1240 Words

Caroline Treinen Ms. Pajer English 101 Synthesis Essay Who are we to dictate who someone loves? The definition of love is the action that two people share. The definition does not say love only occurs between a man and a woman. The article, â€Å"Gay marriage proposals destructive to society, Vatican official says,† is an argument against gay marriage. The author, John Thavis, claims that homosexuals are just struggling to find themselves and that same-sex marriage disrupts the normal sexuality and fertility of a couple. In â€Å"Support for Homosexuals’ Civil Liberties†, Kristin Kenneavy discusses how religious outlooks influence a family’s beliefs on same sex marriage. The two articles show the different views on gay marriage by†¦show more content†¦In â€Å"Gay marriage proposals destructive to society, Vatican official says,† Cardinal Ratzinger asserts that â€Å"recent legislative proposals for gay marriage are part of a larger modern rupture between sexuality and fertility.† He is stating that gay marriage could destroy the status quo of marriage. He argues that normal marriage is a man and a woman uniting as one, not a man and a man or a woman and a woman. A man and a woman are meant to be together not only for physical purposes, but also for moral ones. There is no way that two men or two women could be together morally because it is not in the Bible. He states that homosexuals are considered people who are suffering and want to find their way, but making gay marriage legal doesn’t really help these people. Ratzinger said that â€Å"this is a trend that separates us from all the great culture of humanity, which have always recognized the particular significance of sexuality: that a man and a woman are created to jointly be the guarantee of the future of humanity.† On the other hand, in â€Å"Support for Homosexuals’ Civil Liberties†, the author states â€Å"traditional gender role attitudes and support for homosexu als’ civil liberties are found to negatively co-vary over time.† Religious attitudes differ in both their approaches to the roles of men and women in family settings and their approach towards homosexuality. The author explains that typical household is a male, whoShow MoreRelatedThe United States Of America s Long Tradition And Definition Of Manliness1686 Words   |  7 Pagesas James Jones once said to a Life interviewer.† (Theroux2). This is the foundation of why men act the way they do, it is why they are called men. Paul gives the idea that men are killing machines that always carry a knife, not a pen or a piece of paper; these men hunt and kill out in the wilderness or jungle not the office; and these men are the king of the animal kingdom. Although Paul deems those traits as being a man, he does not follow them. Paul Theroux’s personal key term of being manlyRead MoreThe Diversity Of Human Population2190 Words   |  9 Pagesthere has been an increase in cases of gay people in America, and the world over. Debate rages whether being gay is caused by hormones, genes, social and environmental factors or a combination of all these factors. Regardless of the cause, the general population is gradually accepting the gay community in the population (Katz, 2012). Although there is still a stigma associated with this particular minority group, studies show that it s more favorable being gay now than it was ten years ago. This essayRead More1. Bridggette Hambrick: Homosexuality And Racism. 10. Bridggette3544 Words   |  15 PagesBridggette Hambrick HR5013-110 January 27, 2017 OU Advanced Programs Abstract In this paper I am discussing the racial and prejudice issues of homosexuals. In the present day, homosexuals are being accepted in a better light than thirty years ago. Although, there are still racial slurs, non-acceptance issues, and violence that the homosexual communities are dealing with on a daily basis. In this paper I am discussing Lena. She is a lesbian trying to feel approval of the social world, and herRead MoreBiological Explanations of Homosexuality2341 Words   |  10 PagesBiological Explanations for Homosexuality Katherine Callan Opening This paper is aimed to address the question of whether homosexuality is biologically based. This topic is quite relevant today because homosexuality is a huge civil rights issue which is also conflicting with the church s moral standards. While many religious bodies claim that homosexuality is a choice and a sin, many in the homosexual community have strongly refuted that claim, instead saying they were born this way andRead MoreInstructive Text Types11631 Words   |  47 PagesContextual | Cognitive process | Descriptive | Phenomenon registering | Phenomena in space | Perceptions in space | Narrative | Action recording | Phenomena in time | Perceptions in time | Expository | Phenomenon identifying linking | Analysis\synthesis of concepts | Comprehension of concepts | Argumentative | Negative quality attributing | Relations between concepts | Judging | Instructive | Action demanding | Future behaviour | Planning | 1.5 Biber’s text types Biber’s typology(1989) isRead MoreMonsanto: Better Living Through Genetic Engineering96204 Words   |  385 Pagesi s ANALYSIS External environment General environment Industry environment Competitor environment Internal environment Statements of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Alternatives Evaluations of alternatives Implementation SYNTHESIS In the analysis stage, you should ï ¬ rst analyse the general external environmental issues affecting the ï ¬ rm. Next, your environmental analysis should focus on the particular industry (or industries, in the case of a diversiï ¬ ed company) in whichRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesunderlying theoretical dimensions nor methodological approach to be employed. With the recognition of different approaches to organization theory, there is a widely perceived need to bring some order to the field. This textbook offers a well-integrated synthesis of approaches to organization theory. It will be welcomed by organization theory scholars and reflective practitioners and is a valuable companion for scholars and students of organization theory. Henk W. Volberda, Chair of the Department of StrategicRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagesexploration of attitudes and values. 5. Student motivation is increased, especially in adult learners. xviii PREFACE 6. Students receive immediate feedback from their instructor and peers. 7. Students are involved in higher order thinking (analysis, synthesis, evaluation). Our goals in writing this book were to bridge the academic realm of theory and research and the organizational realm of effective practice, and to help students consistently translate proven principles from both realms into personalRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesEdition Jones−George Driving Shareholder Value Morin−Jarrell Leadership, Fifth Edition Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy The Art of M A: Merger/Acquisitions/Buyout Guide, Third Edition Reed−Lajoux and others . . . This book was printed on recycled paper. Management Copyright  ©2005 by The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publicationRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pageshave healthier, happier marriages) and the right (a traditional male working, wife at home family structure is best) are wrong. Still, this is a complex issue, and research on it continues. What about whether the husband works outside the home? Historically, this was quite unusual, but it is becoming increasingly common— wives are now the primary breadwinner in 22 percent of U.S. couples, up from 7 percent in 1970. There is some evidence that men are less healthy and marriages are more likely to fail

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Foreignness Strategic Management Journal â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Foreignness Strategic Management Journal? Answer: Introduction Arnotts Biscuits Limited is the largest producer of biscuits in Australia. It is also the second largest snack food supplier in the country. Arnotts is a subsidiary of the Campbell Soup Company of the United States. The company was established in 1865 by William Arnott and operated under the family ownership until 1975. In 1997, the Campbell Soup Company acquired Arnotts in full. Despite the American ownership of the company, which led to considerable amount of controversy, as the Australians wanted the famous company to remain in Australian hands, the products of the company have not become Americanised and the manufacturing remains in Australia. The company is now known as Snacks Brands Australia. Arnotts has a wide range of products under its banner and variety of productsare sold by the company in the Australian market. From biscuits, candies, toffees, cakes, to breads, to ice creams and many more types of dessert, Arnotts virtually has existence in almost every market of every available type of dessert in Australia (Dunn 2014). Arnotts owns the top two brands in almost every segment of crackers, sweet biscuits and chocolate biscuits. The company and the product Arnotts is one of the biggest biscuits manufacturers in the world and is the biggest one in the country. The Arnotts umbrella consists of many sections and is the parent company of many brands that are very famous in the Australian biscuits market. Five factors have ensured the growth and of the company and also enables it to maintain the market hold in Australia. The company is focused on the core biscuit portfolio in the country: Arnotts have long exited from the sector of private labels, which yielded almost negligible profit margins. The entire snack food segment of the companys operations has been divested and the focus has been instead given to expanding other dessert food products or snacks that are healthier and organic. Peripheral operations of the company have been limited and a centralized operations management has been created so that every transaction and function of the company and as well as of the subsidiary brands can be monitored in a uniform manner (Bartrim 2017). Manufacturing has been given the highest importance in the company and the quality of the manufacturing process is hailed above all other operations of the company. Entire restructure of the management: Stranded overhead cost is a headache for every organisation that aims to operate within any sector and derive a certain amount of profit from it. The administration process of the company has been streamlined, so that every action and step is monitored and analysed before even being implemented. Sales and other attributes that boost sales are consolidated so that further expansion within the domestic market can be achieved. Route-to-Market warehouse system: The company deals in manufacturing and selling of such a product that has an expiry date. This requires the company to makes sure that none of its products are in consumable condition. The products becoming expired cannot be tolerated by the company and that makes them ensure that their warehouses are foolproof and no products are wasted (Hendrieet al. 2016). Growing core brands: Arnotts has focused all its resources to developing the core brands, as they are the original products and names that have helped the company its current position in the market. Marketing is boosted and widespread campaigns are done so that market exposure is enhanced even further. Promoting the trades of the company is another great strategy that increases transparency in the transactions and operations of the company, that creates a loyal customer base (Pulker, Scott and Pollard 2017). The packaging and merchandising of the products is done with creativity and new ways of delivering the products have helped the company to grow and maintain customer satisfaction, that in turn helps with increased sales, which, again, results in better profit margins. Investing in a pilot plant: This is a newly formed segment of the company where innovation is used efficiently to create new products or developing on the products that are already being produced and sold by Arnotts. Customers are at the heart of any business operations and the company understand that catering to their needs is the only way to stay ahead in the competition (Potter and Davis 2017). Constantly evolving with the changing customer needs and giving them more and new exciting flavors, textures and products is the only way to retain the loyalty of the customers. This pilot plant is where all the creative and innovative ideas are amalgamated and all the inputs are brought together to make something new to keep the excitement and sentiment of the customers alive. The Australian biscuit market is huge and is driven by fierce competition. For years, the parent company of Arnotts has been registering flat profit figures. After the successful implementation of the above described five strategies, it has finally managed to reach profit levels that are above the average market rates. The growing health consciousness of the Australians regarding consumption of snacks, and becoming more biased towards organic and healthy eating habits have rendered the market to experience a sudden slump in recent years (Friel, Barosh and Lawrence 2014). Sweet biscuits: the segment where Arnotts operates the most includes plain biscuits, cream biscuits and cookies. Arnotts has been trying to regain its market status by producing gluten-free, low sugar and low fat biscuits for the people who are serious about maintaining a good and healthy lifestyle. Arnotts have suffered a lot in a market, which experienced an overall degradation in 2013. Even though the market has b een able to recover from that momentary blow, the overall sales and profit levels have not been able to match its previous figures yet. Arnotts have successfully reported higher profit levels than their competition. The biggest reason for this drop in sales and profit can be attributed to a rise in health and lifestyle concern among the consumers. Even if this single incident may be cited aberration, the overall sales have been experiencing a downward result for spome time now. Tim tam has been the most successful launch of Arnotts till date. It has a huge appeal to the children as well as the grownups, who enjoy a sweet comfort food that reminds them of their childhood and has emotional attachment to it. This single product is the only reason for the company to retain its advantageous position in a market that is currently going through a slump. To maintain and increase their sales, Arnotts has gone beyond the simple chocolate selling business strategies and have tried to offer the customers with more products than their peers and competition. Recipes are invented by Arnotts that use Tim Tams as an ingredient and more desserts are offered alongside the traditional candies, chocolate bars, biscuits, chocolates and cakes. Breads are also produced by the company which has given them significant existence in the bread market as well. Over the last five years Arnotts have been experiencing a slowdown, along with the entire market sector, but Tim Tam sales itsel f has seen increase. This can be widely attributed to the fact that the company has invested a lot of money, time and creativity in the campaign and promotion of this product. Therefore, deciding on this product to be the product that is to be introduced to the British market, as new expansion strategy, was the obvious choice. Country and product market attractiveness The United Kingdom is one of the biggest economies in the world and has a huge opportunity in the specific sector of chocolate where Arnotts wants to penetrate. To understand the condition of the overall UK market, a PEST analysis is to be performed upon the entire country, to understand the conditions that are currently prevailing in the country and what possible strategies can be adopted by Arnotts to ensure maximum exposure and sales. Macro environmental analysis: The success of an organisation is determined by the factors that operate within the internal and external environments. An organisation can try to become more successful by efficiently utilizing these factors to its advantage by adapting to the environment to manipulate the factors. An organisation, which is successful in the market can not only use these factors and manipulate them, but also have certain degrees of predictability powers, which help to forecast imminent change. This ability can be of tremendous help for organisations as this can aid in preparing for the change by changing its strategies. The macro environment refers to the outer and external environment in which the organisation operates, effectively meaning the industry and the general condition of the country, which the organisation cannot control as a single entity but have some degree of impact when it is a part of the greater industry as a whole. Micro environment comprises of the internal factors, which are directly controlled by the organisation. The internal operations, manufacturing, service providing, processing all are the factors that are controllable by the organisation. PEST Analysis A PEST analysis is a tool that is used by organisations to understand the prevailing macro environ mental conditions within the country it is operating. Since the economic, political and social conditions and outlooks vary for each country, each country also offers a unique condition for every industry, which is a big point of concern for the organisations that run operations across different countries. The PEST analysis is a simple take on an organisations political, economic, social and technological environments, within which it exists and functions. Legal and environmental factors and conditions are also part of the PEST analysis. Political: The political framework of the country is a constitutional monarchy. A parliamentary system governs the functions of the government, which makes the country is fair and stable, having a lot of opportunities for the entities that operate within the country. The country is normally thought to be as a stable one, where the citizens have a control over its inner functioning. Being split into national and local administrations, it is easier to maintain a cohesion among all the operations of the government, as well as individuals and organisations. However, the government is not devoid of corruption, which are widely known, yet not talked about. The massive political dilemma over the decision of whether to stay in the European Union (EU) or not is taking a significant toll on almost all activities of the country. Even so, the UK is one of the most successful countries where rule of law is established. Economic: The economic condition of the UK is also very stable and has the fifth highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the world. Before the economic slump of the 2007-08, the country was registering a steady GDP growth rate. Even after the depression, the country is gradually coming out of the slow economic growth, however, most of this economic reestablishment is centered around London and the south east. The southern part of the country has traditionally offered services, while the north was more dependent on industrial sectors. This new economic outlook is reflecting the decrease in the importance in the industry sector, which may hamper economic strength in the long run. Interest rates are also regulated by the Bank of England, which also keeps the inflation rates under control. However, lower oil prices play its part and inflation rate do reach almost 4% at times, but is quickly subdued again. The countrys inflation rate has been significantly lower than the overall inflation rates of the EU. Despite all of these economic hope, the pound has still lost its value to some extent, which severely affected the economic condition and transaction of the country in the international market. Social: The UK has very high social standards. These high standards help to keep the overall environment and circumstances in a better than average position as compared to many other first world countries. Services like the National Health Services being free of cost let the society and community to focus their time on other issues. This also helps to keep the overall health quality of the citizens to be better, ensuring more productivity in all sectors. A lot of population also means that there is an abundance of skilled labours. The country has flexible migration laws, which enrich the society in a cultural way, as well as provides with cheap labours. The country ensures a basic education for all its people, and the education system is of very high standards. Better education leads to better workforce. The standard of living in the UK is exceptionally high and has surpassed that of the United States of America recently, after almost a century. Still, the country is burdened with in come disparity and faces challenges in overcoming them. Child poverty is still a major issue in the country and the government struggles to rid the country of this pressing issue. Technology: The UK has a wide range of technology available to help the citizens live a good life and also increase the industrial production and the betterment of the services sector is also achieved. Science and IT sector has seen remarkable expansion; thagt helps in increasing quality of every aspect of life. The country has stringent and effective laws regarding intellectual property rights. The country also has high level of competition among the industries inside the country, which helps to boost growth and specialisation is ensured. The British market of the product The British market offers a diverse and huge for sweet biscuits which is the primary product offered by Arnotts. the combination of either tea or coffee is consumed by almost every British coupled with biscuits almost everyday. The market is supposed to grow almost by 5.6 billion in the next financial year. The biscuit industry, hence, looks to be pretty solid in terms of sales and overall performance. Throughout the recession, when the entire global economic conditions faced meltdowns, the British people never stopped buying biscuits, as it is their daily need. This helped the UK biscuit market to sustain itself better than most other industries of the world. Although this ritualistic nature to buy sweet biscuits have stayed relevant for the people of the UK, the rising health concerns here has also slowed down the industry (Fuller 2016.). However, emotions and sentiments seem to have prevailed and the biscuit sales have been steady. Iconic brands like McVities, Jacobs, Hob Nobs all have good market shares and make sure that the industry will not be facing any immediate problem right away (LEONGet al., 2017). However, these same reasons are why Arnotts will face a problem: The British seem to prefer their own products more than any foreign ones, and the company has to innovate and accordingly market or promote their Tim Tams that would efficiently appeal to the customers in the same way as their local products do. Strategies to penetrate the market Arnotts is going to adopt a number of strategies that are currently used in the backdrop of operating in the Australian market, but may prove to be essential for the UK market. Arnotts has focused a lot of its resources and operations towards online retailing of their products. The company is not satisfied with only supplying their original product to the market, but also aims to provide the British consumers with every product they have in their catalogue (Ng and Shukor 2016). This will no doubt take time and a lot of hard work is to be expected, but Arnotts is sure about yielding a positive result from this. The UK is experiencing an increase in the demand for coffee, and in recent times, there has been a remarkable growth in the number of coffee shops in the country. Arnotts aims to exploit this aspect would expand their business in the coffee chain in the United Kingdom, in a joint venture with Coffex. This would ensure even higher sales for Arnotts Tim Tams and new business opportunities for the company as awell. The retail chains would be supplying new flavors of coffee and would use the products of Arnotts as ingredients. The shops would be offering the customers an enriched coffee drinking experience, which they hope would increase customer satisfaction. In a time when coffee boutiques are setting a new trend in the country, Arnotts has high hopes about their new business venture. Competition in the market and other aspects The market of the UK is high and there are many companies which have been selling chocolate in the country for a long period of time. This would seem like a disadvantageous position for the company as it is a newcomer and do not have enough practical experiences of operating in the British market, which would entail a lot of new planning and strategizing on Arnotts part (Lindberg, Nichols and Yam, 2017). The exit of the country from the EU would pose some obvious problems regarding the tariff laws and export import policy. However, Australia hopes that this would not affect much for their foreign trade with England, as they had similar trading regulations with country before, which are now being considered to be implemented with the new trade laws between the United Kingdom and the European Union. Most of the companies in the UK use online retail shops extensively to reach their customers and increase their sales along with physical shops. Arnotts would be investing a lot in their online retail shop creation which would enable the customers to avail their products in similar fashion in which they are already used to. Similarities between Australia and the UK The Australian and British cultures have some obvious similarities between them, both being first world countries and somewhat of a similar way of thinking. The socio-political and economic conditions are also not very dissimilar in the two countries. This would give Arnotts some basic advantage in planning their strategies. The citizens of both the countries enjoy their desserts and sweet biscuits are a big part of both countrys culinary traditions (Daltonet al. 2014). These aspects would help Arnotts to use the general preference and food habits of the people of the UK to be used to their own advantage. SWOT Analysis Arnott's Biscuits Limited is a company that has been established in the year 1865 and has a long legacy of goodwill and high quality products and this serves as the biggest strength of the company. The popularity, brand value associated with the organization makes customers comes back to the products that the company has to offer. The company over the years has developed and has come up with innovative flavors and taste of biscuits. This plethora of choice caters to the taste buds of almost everyone. The image of the company promotes togetherness, innocence and fun time. The organization is regarded as the biggest producer of biscuits and the second-largest supplier of snack items in Australia. This adds to the popularity of the brand and the availability of the products everywhere in the market. The manufacturing units of the organization are top notch with technologically advanced machinery that allows mass production. It serves as strength as it provides the company allowance to make the products available to the target market at the right time. Tim-Tam is one of the notable brands of the company, it is a fun product and the high quality and reasonable price of the item add to the benefit and the popularity of the brand. The company has a lot of opportunity to expand in Britain as an established brand in Australia it has means and resources to expand in the Britain market as well. The British market is a good place for the company as it has a lot of options in terms of customer segmentation, innovation in the flavor etc (Khan et al. 2015). Weakness The company has a small market share in the international market which is a problem as the industry in which the company operates has a tough competition. Opportunities There are a lot of opportunities in the international market, as the company has good resources to expand the business. The food and beverage industry is booming as people are enjoying diversified and unique flavors in terms of bakery items like biscuits. The demand for biscuit as a snack is also high and a popular brand like Arnotts should use this opportunity. The company does not have cookies or brownies as the product option and this is a space that can be fulfilled by the resources that the company already has The British are a new consumer that would mean that the company has an opportunity to create new and innovative flavors for the British market. Threat The food and beverage industry has a tough competition in the international market, Kraft food limited is the biggest competitions to the company the profile of the two companies are almost alike and people usually interchange the products of these companies (Rothaermel 2015) Entry Strategy Tim Tam will enter the UK market and the company will directly export the product from Australia. Arnott will directly export the product via UK intermediary. These intermediaries will act as the middleman in the company. These intermediaries will also have to control the sales and interact with the client directly. Arnott will be benefited to a large extent if it chooses direct exporting via intermediaries and this will also increase the profit level of the company (Ulrich et al. 2014). It is also important for Arnott to know the customers and then choose the foreign market expansion strategy. In such a case, the customers also provide direct feedback on the product and the performance of the product in the market place which will be beneficial to the company. As the people of UK prefer bakery items to a large extent, Tim Tam will earn a huge profit and it will be preferred by a large number of customers (Marx et al.2014). The intermediaries in the UK market purchase the product fro m the company directly and then they sell it to the customers. The intermediaries in UK set the selling price of Tim Tam and they assure the buyers about the product. They also provide the after sales service in the UK market. Arnott is also trying to link to various global chains by outsourcing the products to UK and this will also help the business to compete in the global level (Constantinides 2014). Arnott will be in profitable stage if it chooses direct export via franchise because the intermediaries can sell the product at a much lower price and it will also help the company to compete with the other leading companies. This will also help Arnott to develop personal relationship with the customers (Hohenthal et al. 2014). Arnott will also establish a sales program and thus will help the intermediaries to represent the company in the future. The intermediaries and the company will work closely in representing the interest of the customers. The customers are regarded as the main agents of the company and thus it is important that the intermediaries are handled in a better way. The home based country of Tim Tam i.e. Australia will be in a much advantageous position and it will also reduce the risk of the company. The risk will be borne by the intermediaries when it sells its products in UK. Arnott will also be in potential risk if it operates in oversees market without nay intermediaries (Musso and Francioni 2014). Marketing Mix The product of Arnott i.e. Tim Tam is preferred by a large number of customers. Tin Tam is available in different flavors such as white chocolate, dark chocolate mint, dark chocolate, honeycomb and chocolate orange. The chocolate flavor of Tim Tam is preferred by a large number of customers and it is flavored by varieties of alcoholic liquors. The biscuit sandwiches of Tim Tam are manufactured in Indonesia. The cheese flavor of Tim Tam is also preferred by a large number of customers. The limited edition of Tim Tam was also launched in the Australian market in 2014 in different flavors such as choc brownie, salted caramel, raspberry white choc. The company also launched the peanut butter Tim Tam and the company has earned a large number of profits through this flavor (Zhou and Guilln 2015). Price Tim Tam is available in available to the customers in an affordable rate. The company launched different flavors of Tim Tam in different sizes and they are available to the customers at an attractive price. Tim Tam is also offered at a discounted price to the customers. The product is available in Woolworths and Coles and the company is trying to resist the prices of Tim Tam and other products of Arnott from rapid price hike (Keiningham et al. 2017). Place Tim Tam is available in different supermarkets as well as in retail stores. The company has chosen many distributors all over the world and it is also trying to expand in the UK market. Arnott is also trying to increase its supply chain when the other companies have increased the price of the product which is similar to Tim Tam. Arnott has set up bakeries for different products in different places in the entire Australian and the company is expanding rapidly in the global market (Sandberg 2013). Promotion Arnott has set up partnership with different institutes such as national Breast Cancer Foundation and it has launched the limited edition of Tim Tam and thus this coincided with the pink ribbon campaign. The company is also spending a huge amount on advertising in different social media sites such as Facebook since 2012. Several campaigns were also done via YouTube and this generated a huge profit to the company. Arnott has also chosen television advertisement to reach out to the customers (Hurskainen 2016) References (2017).7503.0 - Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2015-16. [online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Sep. 2017]. Akbar, S. and Ahsan, K., 2014. Analysis of corporate social disclosure practices of Australian retail firms.International Journal of Managerial and Financial Accounting,6(4), pp.375-396. Barbara, C., Cortis, D., Perotti, R., Sammut, C. and Vella, A., 2017. The European Insurance Industry: A PEST analysis.International Journal of Financial Studies,5(2), p.14. Bartrim, J., 2017. Insect farming and consumption in Australia-opportunities and barriers.Australian Zoologist. Belch, G.E., Belch, M.A., Kerr, G.F. and Powell, I., 2014.Advertising: An integrated marketing communication perspective. McGraw-Hill Education. Boateng, A., Hua, X., Uddin, M. and Du, M., 2014. Home country macroeconomic factors on outward cross-border mergers and acquisitions: Evidence from the UK.Research in International Business and Finance,30, pp.202-216. Bogomolova, S., Dunn, S., Trinh, G., Taylor, J. and Volpe, R.J., 2015. Price promotion landscape in the US and UK: Depicting retail practice to inform future research agenda.Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services,25, pp.1-11. Buckley, P.J. and Ghauri, P.N. eds., 2015.International business strategy: theory and practice. Routledge. Chen, M.J. and Miller, D., 2015. Reconceptualizing competitive dynamics: A multidimensional framework.Strategic Management Journal,36(5), pp.758-775. Constantinides, E., 2014. Foundations of social media marketing.Procedia-Social and behavioral sciences,148, pp.40-57. Dalton, S.M., Probst, Y.C., Batterham, M.J. and Tapsell, L.C., 2014. Compilation of an Australian database of manufactured and packaged food products containing wholegrain ingredients.Journal of Food Composition and Analysis,36(1), pp.24-34. Dunn, N., 2014. The new system.Legaldate,26(2), p.2. Friel, S., Barosh, L.J. and Lawrence, M., 2014. Towards healthy and sustainable food consumption: an Australian case study.Public health nutrition,17(5), pp.1156-1166. Fuller, N.R., 2016. In response to Capsaicinoids: a spicy solution to the management of obesity?.International Journal of Obesity,40(8), pp.1330-1330. Hendrie, G.A., Baird, D., Ridoutt, B., Hadjikakou, M. and Noakes, M., 2016. Overconsumption of energy and excessive discretionary food intake inflates dietary greenhouse gas emissions in Australia.Nutrients,8(11), p.690. Hohenthal, J., Johanson, J. and Johanson, M., 2014. Network knowledge and business-relationship value in the foreign market.International Business Review,23(1), pp.4-19. Hurskainen, R., 2016. Using marketing strategies to clear prejudices and change attitudes towards health technology. Keiningham, T., Keiningham, T., Ball, J., Ball, J., Benoit, S., Benoit, S., Bruce, H.L., Bruce, H.L., Buoye, A., Buoye, A. and Dzenkovska, J., 2017. The interplay of customer experience and commitment.Journal of Services Marketing,31(2), pp.148-160. Khan, U. A., Alam, M. N., and Alam, S. 2015. A Critical Analysis of Internal and External Environment of Apple Inc.International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management,3(6), 955-961. LEONG, C., TU, A., KUONG, A., NGUYEN, T. and LIAW, N., 2015. CASE ANALYSIS FOR. Lindberg, R., Nichols, T. and Yam, C., 2017. The Healthy Eating Agenda in Australia. Is Salt a Priority for Manufacturers?.Nutrients,9(8), p.881. Marx, M., Gans, J.S. and Hsu, D.H., 2014. Dynamic commercialization strategies for disruptive technologies: Evidence from the speech recognition industry.Management Science,60(12), pp.3103-3123. Musso, F. and Francioni, B., 2014. International strategy for SMEs: criteria for foreign markets and entry modes selection.Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development,21(2), pp.301-312. Ng, G.K. and Shukor, S.A., 2016. Sustainability in Food Processing Industry: An Overview.Advanced Science Letters,22(7), pp.1835-1839. Potter, A. and Davis, R., 2017. The Gold Coast on Screen: Childrens television selling Brand Australia in international markets.Series-International Journal of TV Serial Narratives,3(1), pp.27-39. Pulker, C.E., Scott, J.A. and Pollard, C.M., 2017. Ultra-processed family foods in Australia: nutrition claims, health claims and marketing techniques.Public health nutrition, pp.1-11. Rothaermel, F. T. 2015.Strategic management. McGraw-Hill Education. Sandberg, S., 2013. Emerging market entry node pattern and experiential knowledge of small and medium-sized enterprises.International Marketing Review,30(2), pp.106-129. Ulrich, A.M.D., Hollensen, S. and Boyd, B., 2014. Entry mode strategies into the Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) markets.Global Business Review,15(3), pp.423-445. Zhou, N. and Guilln, M.F., 2015. From home country to home base: A dynamic approach to the liability of foreignness.Strategic Management Journal,36(6), pp.907-

Saturday, April 11, 2020

How to Write a Philosophy Paper free essay sample

Every paper you write for me will be based on the same basic assignment: state a thesis and defend It. That Is, you must stake out a position that you take to be correct, and then you must offer arguments for that view, consider objections, and reply to those objections. Put another way: you must give reasons to believe the central thesis of the paper. Some of you may have never written a paper like this before. So let me contrast It with two other kinds of papers you probably have written.First, I am not cooking for book reports: I dont want summaries of one or more of the readings, and I dont want you to compare and contrast what different authors say, or what different moral theories might say, about the given topic. Rather, I want you to stick your neck outtell me what you believe to be the truth about the relevant issue. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Write a Philosophy Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page And then I want you to defend that position. Of course, It might well be relevant, or helpful (or perhaps even part of the specific assignment) to discuss some particular author or view.But even here the emphasis should be on evaluating that author or view. Book reports, no matter how superb, simply dont meet the assignment. Second, I am not looking for thoughts on topic X, or meditations on X, or remarks on X. It just wont do to simply string together various reflections you may have on the given topic, even if in the course of doing this you embrace various claims, and offer some reasons for your views, before moving on to the next reflection. The paper should Instead have a single, central thesis.The point of the paper Is to state and defend that thesis. The various contents of the paper should be selected and organized so as best to defend that central claim. Stream of consciousness, for example, is a poor way to organize material, and is likely to include much that Is irrelevant to anything Like a mall thesis. ) No matter how brilliant, mere reflections simply dont meet the assignment. 2. So the paper should state a central thesis, and defend it. More specifically, it should do the following things: A) It should start with a clear statement of the thesis.This need not be the very first sentence, but it should almost always come in the first paragraph or two. Many papers never give a clear, official, precise statement of the thesis at all. They leave he reader guessing what the authors precise position Is. Dont do this. It may seem obvious to you what your position Is: It wont be obvious to me. Other papers do give a clear statement of the thesisbut not until the last paragraph of the paper. (Oh! Is that what the author was driving at! ) This may be a dramatic way to structure a short story; but It is a very poor way to structure a philosophy paper.I shouldnt have to spend my time reading the paper trying to figure out what your view is; should be able to spend my time deciding whether you do a good Job of defending that view. It is likely that if you cannot state the central thesis of the OFF trying to say. Try stating your thesis out loud. If you find yourself rambling on, then this is a sign you should think harder about what exactly your point is. (Admittedly, sometimes a reasonably short statement of your view neglects certain qualifications that a fuller statement would include.It is K to offer the general, slightly imprecise statement of the thesis first, and then say something like Of course this claim needs to be qualified as follows. . Or Of course this needs to be qualified somewhat, and I will note these qualifications, when appropriate, later in he paper. But if you find yourself doing this often, that is a bad sign. ) B) Having stated your thesis, you need to defend that thesisto give arguments, reasons to believe it. Philosophy is not Just a matter of asserting opinions, however profound; it requires backing up those opinions, as best one can, with plausible grounds.It is, of course, difficult to say anything helpful at this level of generality about what a good argument would look like, or what sorts of arguments will be most forceful, most useful, and so forth. To a large extent this will depend on the specific thesis being defended. But I do want to point out that learning how to develop and present plausible and convincing arguments is a skill that takes practice like any other skill. If you work at it, you will get better at it. I also want to warn you against a common error. Some people try to offer as many arguments as possible for their view.There might be a dozen or more in a 5 page paper, each argument taking up a sentence or two, or at most a paragraph. This is not a good way to defend a thesis, for the inevitable result will be that no single argument is developed with enough care to be convincing. Everything will be superficial. What you should do instead is take what you think is the one best argument for your view, or at most the two best argumentsthe most important and convincing onesand devote the paper to spelling them out, filling in the details, developing them.To be honest, a short paper is often barely enough space to present a single forceful argument with the care and attention it deserves. So you will do a much more persuasive Job of arguing for your view if you use the available space to spell out exactly how your single, central argument works. C) It is almost always possible to come up with something to say on behalf of a view, o matter how stupid that view is. So the real test is to see how well you can defend your position against objections. Thus a good philosophy paper will always consider one or more worrisome objections, and then try to reply to those objections.Once again, it is difficult to say in a general way what the best objections will look like. Sometimes they will note potential flaws in the arguments you have given (thus giving reason to think that the thesiswhether true or nothas not been well defended). Other times they will directly attack the thesis itself (thus giving reason to hind that the thesis must be false). Here, too, learning how to recognize and present the most significant objections is a skill that should get better with practice. But a helpful idea is this: imagine a really intelligent person who is not convinced by what you have said.What, exactly, are they likely to be complaining about? Here as well, it is important to avoid the common mistake of simply trying to state as many devastating, or most interesting, or most worrisome. Concentrate on those. Having given the objection, or objections, it is of course crucial to try to offer some sort of reply to those objections. After all, if the objection is truly worth offering in the first place, it should be raising a serious worry. Very well, then, where exactly does this objection go wrong? Why doesnt the objection convince you to abandon your view?Is the objection based on some sort of mistake? Or does it force you to modify your view in some way? You should not pretend that the objections are completely idiotic. (If they are, you shouldnt bother giving them. ) You should Just give your best attempt at answering them. 2 D) What I have said so far may give the impression that the right way to organize the paper is like this: Thesis, Argument, Argument, Objection, Objection, Reply, Reply. In fact, however, this is a poor way to organize a paper, for with an approach like this the various parts of the paper are not logically integrated.Better to raise the objections at the relevant stage of the argument. (Or perhaps you should state the argument briefly, and then go on to raise objections to it. ) Better to reply to the given objection immediately after having raised it, and then move on to a new objection, or perhaps to a new argument. If you do this, you might end up with something more eke the following: Thesis, Argument, Objection, Reply, New Objection, Reply, New Argument, Objection, Reply. Obviously, there is nothing magic about this outline either; a great deal will depend on the details.But you should do what you can to integrate the various elements of the paper. E) There are very few knock down arguments in philosophy. It is almost always the case that there is more than one plausible view on a given subject, and there are arguments for and against the particular position you are defending. Thus, if you have done a fair Job of presenting your thesis, offering arguments, offering objections, and replying to those objections, then the fact of the matter is that when the dust settles down, you will have to admitif you are honestthat there is something to be said on both sides of the issue.That doesnt mean that you must think it is a tie. Even if both sides are still standing, you might still think that, on balance, one side of the argument has the better of it: it seems more convincing, more plausible, better able to defend itself. Hopefully, this is the side you set out to defend. (If not, switch sides, and write the paper again! ) So a good place to end the paper is by briefly reviewing the major advantages and disadvantages of your view (as compared to the leading alternative, perhaps)and explaining why, on balance, you think that your view remains the most plausible position.Again, your goal should not be to try to convince everyone who reads the paper: thats a goal t hat its almost always impossible to meet. Your goal, rather, should be to give the best possible defense for your view, recognizing that, even when all is said and done, others may still disagree. 3. In writing and working on the paper, what should you do? The first thing you should o is this: think. You should do a lot of thinking before you try to write anything. You writing on. You need to think about the specific assignment (if there is one). You need to think about your views.You need to think about what position seems plausible to you. You need to think about your reasons for believing that view. You need to think about the weak points in your position. You need to think about possible replies. And you need to think about whetherin the light of all of thisyou need to think again. So dont expect to sit down the night before the paper is due and throw something off. That Just doesnt leave you enough time for thinking (and changing your mind). The first thing you should do, then, is give yourself several days Just to think about things, and to try to figure out what you believe. Once youve got a reasonably good fix on what you want to say, write a draft of the paper. Dont think of it as the final product. That may only cramp your writing and make you afraid to discover new ideas (new problems, new questions, new arguments, new objections) in the course of writing. Dont worry about getting it perfect. Worry about getting it down. Then, having written a draft of the whole paperput it away! Sleep on it. Look at it again in the cold light of morning, or after a day spent thinking about something else. With fresh eyes you will be 3 better able to see what makes sense, and what doesnt, whats relevant, and what should go, whats convincing, and what needs further development, whats clear, and what isnt, whats good, and whats garbage. Then, with an eye to all of this (and after having thought about the new difficulties youve discovered) write the paper again. Maybe you will want to discard the original, and write it all over, from scratch as it were. Or maybe you will want to use the original as a basis, and revise, expand, correct, and cut, as needed.Either way, the way to make it better is to rewrite it. I dont think I can emphasize this last point enough. There is absolutely nothing you can do to improve the quality of your writing as much as getting into the habit of rewriting your papers. Nothing. Ideally, even this revised version of the paper would not be your final version. You might revise it again. And maybe again. But even when you finally have a version that you are truly happy with, there is still something else you could do that would make it utter still: show it to a friend.Find someone else in the class, or Just some friend who seems reasonably intelligent, and ask them to take a few minutes to read your paper. Then ask them to tell youin their own wordswhat your basic thesis is, and how you go about arguing for it. If they cant do this, then the odds are pretty good that the paper isnt as clear as it should be, or isnt as well organized as it should be and this will give you a reasonable idea of what still needs to be rewritten. If you are really lucky, in the course of the conversation your friend may point out some important objection you overlooked.Or you may end up seeing how to make your point more clearly, more simply, more convincingly. So then you can go back and improve the paper some more. (Be sure to include a footnote acknowledging your friends ideas. ) Now I am under no illusion that many of you have the time (or the inclination) to do all of this: write, revise, revise again, share, and revise yet again. I realize that you have other classes, and other responsibilitiesand you also have a life. But you can think of this elaborate process as some kind of ideal, and do what better your writing will be. 4.Let me mention some of the virtues that are especially important in a good philosophy paper. Obviously enough, it is important to have good arguments: most of your grade will be a function of how good a Job you do of defending your thesis. But there are other, more general, aspects of good writing that need to be emphasized as well. (Eve already mentioned most of these, but they bear repeating. ) First, the paper should be well-organized. That is, the underlying outline should reflect a logical progression of ideas. Closely connected, second, the paper should only contain material relevant to the official purpose of the paper.The idea of the paper is to state and defend a central thesis. Many ideas may be reasonably relevant to the general topic you are discussing, but nonetheless altogether irrelevant to your particular position or to your particular arguments. Cut out anything that isnt actually doing some work for you. Third, write in simple, Jargon-free English. Long, convoluted sentences can be difficult or impossible to understand. And Jargon can get in the way of communicating, oreven worse-it can mask ambiguities and confusion; it can get in the way of your seeing Just what it is that you really dont understand.Sometimes people think that profound topics need to be discussed in a language that looks profound. But thats Just a mistake. There is no reason why you cant express your thoughts in simple, straightforward English. (Of course sometimes a certain amount of philosophical Jargon may be unavoidable, or even helpful. But it should be used 4 sparingly; and the meaning of any such terms used should always be carefully explained in the paper. ) Fourth, and closely connected to the last point, it is absolutely crucial that you strive to be as utterly clear as you possibly can be. Spell out your ideas as carefully as you an. Make it explicit. Make it all explicit. Dont hint at things, or point in the direction of your thoughts. Dont assume that it will be obvious what you have in mind. (It wont be at all obvious, and the chances are good that I will be confused, or at least uncertain. I havent been living in your head all these years. ) Spell out all the steps of the argument, even the ones that seem to you to be too obvious to need stating. Explain exactly what the train of thought ishow and why we are moving from A to B, but skipping over C, to get to K!Put in road markers for the reader, viewing what the paper has shown so far, and announcing where the paper still has to go to in order to arrive at its destination. Say things like: In order to defend my position, I am going to offer two arguments. The first argument has three premises Now lets consider each of them. The first premise was Here is why I think this premise is plausible But here is an objection to that premise. .. And here is my reply That covers the first of the three premises. The second, youll recall was. . . and so forth, and so on.Spell it all out, as clearly as you possibly can. You may reach a point where you think you are beating a dead horse on this clarity thing. Thats fine; I want you to beat the horse anyway. In all my years of teaching I have never seen a paper that goes too far in this direction, but I have seen hundreds make your paper as clear as it possibly can be. (If your paper is the one that finally goes overboard in this regard, I will happily tell you to ease up slightly on the next one. ) One further aspect of spelling things out clearly may deserve special mention.If you do quote from someone in your papereven if it is from one of the assigned addingthis should always be followed up by your own explanation of what the quotation means. (Typically, after all, quotes dont wear their meanings on their sleeves. ) You may need to explain any technical terms that the author uses, or summarize the authors main reasons for holding that particular view. In any event, quotations (like Jargon) should be used sparingly; keep it to a minimum. 5. Here are two things that you dont need to do in writing a paper for me.First, you do not need to do researchat least, not if what you mean by research is doing extra eating, looking at other works by one of our authors, or at secondary literature on some topic. Obviously, there is an important place for such scholarly research, and for many classes doing this well is an important preparation for writing a paper. But for my classes there is (usually) no need to do anything like this at all. Indeed, I would strongly prefer if you not do this kind of research. For what I am really interested in is seeing what you can come up with through thinking about the relevant philosophical issues.I want you to wrestle with the issues first hand, rather than getting your ideas r inspiration from the thoughts of another. In short, I want you to devote your time to philosophical reflection, rather than scholarly research. (l also want you to come to appreciate the way in which philosophical reflection is a way of doing research in philosophyindeed, the primary way. ) (Needless to say, if you do disregard my advice and do outside research anyway, and then find yourself incorporating ideas from other works into your own paper, you must properly and explicitly acknowledge your debts in the paper.And the same is true, of course, even if your debt is to a mere friend, rather than to some famous helicopter. ) 5 But if you dont do scholarly research, to find out what views have already been discussed, and what sorts of arguments and objections are out there, isnt there a serious chance that you will Just end up saying something that someone else has already said? Yes, its true, there is a significant chance that your paper wont be original in that way. But thats K, too-for the second thing that you dont hav e to do in writing a paper for me is come up with something that no one has said before.I want you to get some experience in thinking through philosophical problems for ourselves. You can do this Just as welland learn Just as much from the experience even if you end up reinventing the wheel. After all, if you do reinvent something as fantastic as the wheel (or the philosophical equivalent), that would really be quite an achievement indeed. Of course, it will only be an achievement if you do genuinely reinvent it: if all that happened was you read about the wheel from some unassigned reading, and then wrote about it, that would hardly be evidence of any kind of creative talent on your part. So thats another reason I usually dont want you to do research. ) Before finishing, it may be helpful to say something about picking a topic and a thesis. For many of you, this wont be much of an issue. Usually, for large, lower-level courses, I tend to assign a choice of specific paper topics. In that case, of course, once you decide which question appeals to youand which one you have something to say aboutchoosing a thesis will be fairly straightforward: its mostly a matter of deciding which side you come down on. But for some classes (usually upper-level courses) I prefer to leave things fairly wide open.If thats the case, then you can generally write n anything at all connected (reasonably closely) to the subject matter of the course. You might pick a topic that weve talked about in class, even though none of the readings discuss it. Or it might be something the readings discuss, even though we havent talked about it in class. Or it might be an issue which goes beyond anything weve talked about, or read about, but which is logically connected to issues that have been discussed. I wont quite say that anything goesthe topic really does need to be connected to the subject matter of the classbut I do tend to be fairly liberal about his. If youre not sure whether a given topic is legitimate, Just ask me. ) In any event, assuming you can tell whats relevant to the course and what isnt, the really crucial matter is finding a topic where you have something to say! My hope is this: at one or more points during the term, you have found yourself thinking that the class discussion Just didnt do Justice to some point of view that seems attractive to you. Or perhaps there was some view that got mentioned in the readings, and even though we didnt discuss it, you think its worth defending. Or maybe you think it loud be illuminating to point out where the view goes wrong.Whatever. Think back on the moments when you felt you had something more to say, something that goes beyond Just repeating points already made in the readings, or already made by others in class discussion. Pick one of those issues as your topic. Then you can concentrate on trying to figure out exactly what you want to claim. Thats a matter of clarifying and refining your thesis. It can certainly take some work to find Just the right topic, and Just the right thesis. Part of the challenge, of course, is to pick an interesting topic and an interesting hisses (there is no point in defending trivial or uncontroversial claims).But it obviously wont help to pick something fascinating and controversial if you dont have anything plausible to say in defense of your chosen point of view. Sometimes you Just have to admit that despite your interest in a given issue, or despite your belief in a given position, you Just dont have enough to say. Then you have to move on and try something else. 6 At other times you will have to admit that you have too much to say, that you cant possibly defend your position adequately in the limited space available. It is important to find something the right size.If the paper is too ambitious, you simply wont be able to spell out and defend your view adequately, and you will end up being superficial and hasty or unclear. Fortunately, with a little work, you can often find some way to scale back on overly ambitious projectsfind a piece of it that makes for a more manageable paper. Other times, however, youll Just have to go back to the No doubt, some of you have a fair amount of experience writing the kind of paper I have been describing. But others, as I noted at the beginning, may have little or no experience doing this sort of thing.Either way, its pretty likely that for a lot of you, your initial attempts wont represent the best you can do. But thats K too (though I certainly hope you will give each paper your best shot). I am not especially interested in whether or not you come into my class knowing how to write the kind of paper I am looking for. I mostly care about whether you come out of my class knowing how to do this. So if your work shows a clear pattern of improvement over the course of the term, Ill count the later, better papers much more heavily than the earlier, initial attempts. Thats a promise.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Artist Henri Matisse, an Influential Modernist Painter

Artist Henri Matisse, an Influential Modernist Painter Henri Émile Benoà ®t Matisse (December 31, 1869 – November 3, 1954) is considered one of the most influential painters of the 20th century, and one of the leading Modernists. Known for his use of vibrant colors and simple forms, Matisse helped to usher in a new approach to art. Matisse believed that the artist must be guided by instinct and intuition. Although he began his craft later in life than most artists, Matisse continued to create and innovate well into his 80s. Early Years Henri Matisse was born on December 31, 1869, in Le Cateau, a small town in northern France. His parents, Émile Hippolyte Matisse and Anna Gà ©rard, ran a store that sold grain and paint. Matisse was sent to school in Saint-Quentin, and later to Paris, where he earned his capacità ©- a type of law degree. Returning to Saint-Quentin, Matisse found a job as a law clerk. He came to despise the work, which he considered pointless. In 1890, Matisse was stricken by an illness that would forever alter the young mans life and the world of art. Late Bloomer Weakened by a severe bout of appendicitis, Matisse spent nearly all of 1890 in his bed. During his recuperation, his mother gave him a box of paints to keep him occupied. Matisses new hobby was a revelation. Despite having never shown any interest in art or painting, the 20-year old suddenly found his passion. He would later say that nothing had ever truly interested him before, but once he discovered painting, he could think of nothing else. Matisse signed up for early-morning art classes, leaving him free to continue the law job he so hated. After a year, Matisse moved to Paris to study, eventually earning admission to the leading art school. Matisses father disapproved of his sons new career but continued to send him a small allowance. Student Years The bearded, bespectacled Matisse often wore a serious expression and was anxious by nature. Many fellow art students thought Matisse resembled a scientist more than an artist and thus nicknamed him the doctor. Matisse studied three years with French painter Gustave Moreau, who encouraged his students to develop their own styles. Matisse took that advice to heart, and soon his work was being displayed at prestigious salons. One of his early paintings, Woman Reading, was bought for the home of the French president in 1895. Matisse formally studied art for nearly a decade (1891-1900). While attending art school, Matisse met Caroline Joblaud. The couple had a daughter, Marguerite, born in September 1894. Caroline posed for several of Matisses early paintings, but the couple separated in 1897. Matisse married Amà ©lie Parayre in 1898, and they had two sons together, Jean and Pierre. Amà ©lie would also pose for many of Matisses paintings. Wild Beasts Invade the Art World Matisse and his group of fellow artists experimented with different techniques, distancing themselves from traditional art of the 19th century. Visitors to a 1905 exhibition at the Salon dAutomne were shocked by the intense colors and bold strokes used by the artists. An art critic dubbed them les fauves, French for the wild beasts. The new movement came to be known as Fauvism (1905-1908), and Matisse, its leader, was considered King of the Fauves. Despite receiving some scathing criticism, Matisse continued to take risks in his painting. He sold some of his work but struggled financially for a few more years. In 1909, he and his wife could finally afford a house in the Paris suburbs. Influences on Matisses Style Matisse was influenced early in his career by Post-Impressionists Gauguin, Cà ©zanne, and van Gogh. Mentor Camille Pissarro, one of the original Impressionists, gave advice that Matisse embraced: Paint what you observe and feel. Travel to other countries inspired Matisse as well, including visits to England, Spain, Italy, Morocco, Russia, and later, Tahiti. Cubism (a modern art movement based upon abstract, geometric figures) influenced Matisses work from 1913-1918. These WWI years were difficult for Matisse. With family members trapped behind enemy lines, Matisse felt helpless, and at 44, he was too old to enlist. The darker colors used during this period reflect his dark mood. The Master By 1919, Matisse had become internationally known, exhibiting his work throughout Europe and in New York City. From the 1920s on, he spent much of his time in Nice in the south of France. He continued to create paintings, etchings, and sculptures. Matisse and Amà ©lie drifted apart, separating in 1939. Early in WWII, Matisse had a chance to flee to the United States but chose to stay in France. In 1941, after successful surgery for duodenal cancer, he nearly died from complications. Bedridden for three months, Matisse spent the time developing a new art form, which became one of the artists trademark techniques. He called it drawing with scissors, a method of cutting out shapes from painted paper, later assembling them into designs. Chapel in Vence Matisses final project (1948-1951) was creating the decor for a Dominican chapel in Vence, a small town near Nice, France. He was involved in every aspect of design, from the stained-glass windows and crucifixes to the wall murals and priests robes. The artist worked from his wheelchair and used his color-cutout technique for many of his designs for the chapel. Matisse died on November 3, 1954, after a brief illness. His works remain a part of many private collections and are on exhibit in major museums throughout the world.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Physics (Electron Physics and X-ray Tomography) Coursework - 1

Physics (Electron Physics and X-ray Tomography) - Coursework Example gher than that of the photon attraction for the jump to take place from K-shell to the L-shell, loosely bound electrons from L moves into the K-shell to replace the ejected electron. When a lot of high incident energy are directed to an atom, many electrons are emitted and forms the x-rays. Bremsstrahlung is the process of slowing down primary radiatin; X-ray is produced by radiations when electrons are retarded or decelerated2.. The radiation becomes intense and attains higher frequencies with increase in energy of bombarding electrons. The colliding electrons shifts electrons from high-energy shell to low energy shells, the rapid replacement by electrons from outer shells create a clearly defined x-ray. The curve shown below was produced by analysing the nature of radiation produced by bombarding electrons from four distinct energy levels against a tungsten target. The graph is used to relate the intensity of x-rays emitted and the wavelength for accurate x-ray photographing. The figure above shows X-ray spectrograph when copper is used as the target material, the intensity of the photon have linear relation with the wavelength. The intensity rises to peak then starts to slope downwards; high accelerating voltage causes the peak to rise sharply, as shown by Kp, KÃŽ ±, LP and LÃŽ ±. X-ray tube functions as energy converting system that converts electric energy into x-ray radiation and heat. Heat3 is the undesired product of the process; the conversion takes place in x-ray tube. The components of x-ray tube includes The higher the amount of current the higher the intensity of x-rays emitted since more of electrons are displaced from the high energy levels. In the case above, 5mA produces much lower intensity of X-rays as compared to 100mA since the rate of electron displacement is high in the first case characterized by the high peak of 100mA current4. b) Attenuation by photoelectric effect result from interaction between Photons and Matter. Photons are